ASN Report 2018

• Measuring parameters These devices, which operate on the principle of X-ray attenuation, are used as industrial gauges for measuring fluid levels in cylinders or drums, for detecting leaks, for measuring thicknesses or density, etc. • Irradiation treatment More generally used for performing irradiations, the self- shielded devices exist in several models that sometimes differ only in the size of the self-shielded chamber, while the characteristics of the X-ray generator remain the same. Radiography for checking the quality of weld beads or for the fatigue inspection of materials is detailed in point 3.1.1. 1.3.2  –  Veterinary diagnostic radiology The profession counts approximately 16,000 veterinary surgeons and 14,000 non-veterinarian employees. Veterinary surgeons use diagnostic radiology devices in a context similar to that of the devices used in human medicine. Veterinary diagnostic radiology activities essentially concern pets: ∙ ∙ 90% of the 5,793 veterinary structures in France have at least one diagnostic radiology device; ∙ ∙ about fifty computed tomography scanners are used in veterinary applications to date; ∙ ∙ other practices drawn from the medical sector are also implemented in specialised centres: scintigraphy, brachytherapy and external-beam radiotherapy. The treatment of large animals (mainly horses) requires the use of more powerful devices installed in specially equipped premises (radiography of the pelvis, for example) and of portable X-ray generators, used indoors - whether in dedicated premises or not - or outside in the open air. This activity has significant radiation protection implications for veterinary surgeons and grooms. In order to better ensure compliance with regulatory requirements, ASN introduced a notification system in 2009 for what were called “canine activities” involving less serious radiation risks (see point 2.4.2). This simplification has led to regularisation of the administrative situation of a growing number of veterinary structures (see Graph 4) with more than 90% of the structures being notified or licensed. The devices used in the veterinary sector are sometimes derived from the medical sector. However, the profession is increasingly adopting new devices specially developed to meet its own specific needs. With regard to veterinary facilities, the administrative situation has been continuously improving for a number of years now. At the end of 2018, ASN counted 4,681 notified or licensed facilities out of approximately 5,000 veterinary structures using ionising radiation in France. Among the veterinary activities, those performed on large animals (primarily horses) and outside specialised veterinary facilities (in so-called “worksite” conditions), are considered to be those with the most significant radiation risks, more specifically for persons external to the veterinary practice taking part in these procedures. The inspections carried out by ASN on these veterinary clinics have revealed areas for improvement regarding which ASN remains vigilant when reviewing licensing applications and performing inspections: ∙ ∙ worker monitoring by active dosimetry and in-house radiation protection checks; ∙ ∙ setting up supervised or controlled areas; ∙ ∙ the necessity to reinforce the radiation protection of persons external to the veterinary practice who participate in the diagnostic procedures. The conventional radiology activities performed on pets (called “canine activities” in France) are carried out in a very large number of veterinary clinics but involve lower radiation risks. As part of its graded approach which consists in adapting the control methods to the radiation risks, ASN conducted an experimental control campaign in 2015 and 2016 which called upon new dematerialised control methods. The campaign was carried out in seven départements (Aisne, Allier, Aube, Cantal, Haute-Loire, Pas-de-Calais and Puy-de-Dôme) and adressed 463 veterinary clinics. Conducted in close collaboration with the Higher Council of the Order of Veterinarians, this experiment is viewed positively by ASN, which will consider whether it would be worthwhile applying this type of control in other sectors. Use of electrical devices generating ionising radiation (veterinary sector excluded) 0 200 400 600 800 1,000 1,200 Non-destructive testing X-ray fluorescence analysis Crystallography Industrial gauge Accelerator Research Teaching Calibration 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 Number of facilities licensed Graph 3 ASN report on the state of nuclear safety and radiation protection in France in 2018  235 08 – SOURCES OF IONISING RADIATION AND THEIR INDUSTRIAL, VETERINARY AND RESEARCH APPLICATIONS 08