ASN Report 2018

1 —  Anticipating Four main principles underpin the protection of the general public against BNI risks: ∙ ∙ risk reduction at source, wherein the licensee must take all steps to reduce the risks to a level that is as low as reasonably achievable in acceptable economic conditions; ∙ ∙ the emergency and contingency plans, designed to prevent and mitigate the consequences of an accident; ∙ ∙ controlling urban development around BNIs; ∙ ∙ informing the general public. 1.1  ̶  Looking ahead and planning 1.1.1  –  Emergency and contingency plans concerning BNIs The emergency and contingency plans relative to accidents occurring in a BNI define the measures necessary for protecting site personnel, the general public and the environment, and for controlling the accident. ASN took part in drafting the Major Nuclear or Radiological Accident National Response Plan , which was published by the Government in February 2014. The Plan incorporates the lessons learned from the Fukushima Daiichi accident and the post-accident doctrine drawn up by the Codirpa. It specifies the national organisation in the event of a nuclear accident, the strategy to be applied and the main actions to be taken. It includes the international nature of emergencies and the mutual assistance possibilities in the case of an event. In 2015, the local implementation of this plan began in the French départements , under the supervision of the defence and security zone Prefects and it is now in the completion phase. In the vicinity of the facility, the Off-site Emergency Plan (PPI) is established by the Prefect of the département concerned pursuant to Articles L.741-6, R.741-8 et seq. of the Domestic Security Code, “ to protect the populations, property and the environment, and to cope with the specific risks associated with the existence of structures and facilities whose perimeter is localised and fixed. The PPI implements the orientations of civil protection policy in terms of mobilisation of resources, information, alert, exercises and training ”. These Articles also stipulate the characteristics of the facilities or structures for which the Prefect is required to define a PPI. CHAPTER 04 N uclear activities are carried out within a framework which aims to prevent accidents but also to mitigate their consequences. Despite all the precautions taken, an accident can never be completely ruled out and the necessary provisions for dealing with and managing a radiological emergency situation must be planned for and regularly tested and revised. Radiological emergency situations, resulting from an incident or accident liable to lead to an emission of radioactive substances or to a level of radioactivity potentially affecting public health, include: ∙ ∙ emergency situations arising in a Basic Nuclear Installation (BNI); ∙ ∙ accidents involving the transport of radioactive substances; ∙ ∙ emergency situations occurring in the field of small-scale nuclear activities. Emergency situations affecting nuclear activities can also comprise non-radiological risks, such as fire, explosion or the release of toxic substances. These emergency situations are covered by specific material and organisational arrangements, which include the contingency plans and involve both the licensee and/or the party responsible for the activity and the public authorities. The Nuclear Safety Authority (ASN) is involved in managing these situations, with regard to questions concerning the regulation of nuclear safety and radiation protection and, backed more particularly by the expertise of its technical support organisation, the Institute for Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN), it has the following four key duties: ∙ ∙ check the steps taken by the licensee and ensure that they are pertinent; ∙ ∙ advise the authorities on population protection measures; ∙ ∙ take part in the dissemination of information to the population and media; ∙ ∙ act as Competent Authority within the framework of the international Conventions on Early Notification and Assistance. In 2005, ASN also set up a Steering Committee for the Management of the Post- Accident Phase (Codirpa) so that, following on from the management of a radiological emergency, preparations can be made for the post-accident phase. The doctrine published in November 2012 concerning the emergency phase exit, transitional and long-term periods, will be updated in 2019. The guidelines of this update were validated at the end of 2018. Radiological emergency and post-accident situations 158  ASN report on the state of nuclear safety and radiation protection in France in 2018