ASN Report 2018

which are overseen by ASND and those relative to Installations Classified for Protection of the Environment (ICPE), which are placed under the oversight of the Prefects. 1.1.1  –  Management of radioactive waste in BNIs Two economic sectors are the major contributors to the production of radioactive waste in BNIs. First, the nuclear power sector, with the 19 Nuclear Power Plants (NPP) operated by EDF, and the plants dedicated to the fabrication and reprocessing of nuclear fuel operated by Orano and Framatome. Operation of the NPPs generates spent fuel, part of which is reprocessed to separate the recyclable substances from the fission products or minor actinides which are waste. Radioactive waste is also produced during the operational and maintenance activities in the NPPs and the fuel reprocessing plants, like the structural waste, the hulls and end-pieces constituting the nuclear fuel cladding, and the technological waste, and the waste from the treatment of effluents such as the bituminised sludge. Furthermore, decommissioning of the facilities produces radioactive waste. Second, the research sector, which includes civil nuclear research, in particular the CEA’s laboratory and reactor research activities. Radioactive waste is produced during the operation, maintenance and decommissioning of these facilities. This radioactive waste is managed in accordance with specific provisions which take into account its radiological nature and are proportionate to the potential danger it represents. 1.1.2  –  Management of waste from small-scale nuclear activities authorised under the Public Health Code • The issues and implications The use of unsealed sources in nuclear medicine, biomedical or industrial research creates solid and liquid waste: small laboratory equipment used to prepare sources, medical equipment used for administration, remains from meals (uneaten foodstuffs, containers, cutlery) served to patients who have received injections for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes, etc. Radioactive liquid effluents also come from source preparation as well as from patients who eliminate the administered radioactivity by natural routes. The diversity of waste from small-scale nuclear activities, the large number of establishments producing it and the radiation protection issues involved, have led the public authorities to regulate the management of the waste produced by these activities. • Management of disused sealed sources considered as waste Sealed sources are used for medical, industrial, research and veterinary applications (see chapters 7 and 8). Once they have been used, and if their suppliers do not envisage their reuse in any way, they are considered to be radioactive waste and must be managed as such. The management of sealed sources considered as waste, and their disposal in particular, must take into consideration the dual constraint of concentrated activity and a potentially attractive appearance in the event of human intrusion after loss of the memory of a disposal facility. This dual constraint therefore limits the types of sources that can be accepted in disposal facilities, especially surface facilities. 1.1.3  –  Management of waste containing natural radioactivity Some professional activities using raw materials which naturally contain radionuclides, but which are not used for their radioactive properties, may lead to an increase in specific activity in the products, residues or waste they produce. The term “Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material” (NORM) is used when its activity exceeds the exemption thresholds figuring in Table 1 of Appendix 13-8 of the Public Health Code. NORM waste, for which there is no planned or envisaged use, is now considered as radioactive waste within the meaning of Article L. 542-1-1 of the Environment Code. Waste containing radioactive substances of natural origin but which do not exceed the abovementioned exemption thresholds are directed to conventional waste management routes. Classification of radioactive waste Table 1 Very short lived waste containing radionuclides with a half-life of < 100 days Short lived waste in which the radioactivity comes mainly from radionuclides with a half-life ≤ 31 years Long lived waste containing mainly radionuclides with a half-life > 31 years Very-low- level (VLL) Management by radioactive decay on production site then disposal via disposal routes dedicated to conventional waste Recycling or dedicated surface disposal (disposal facility of the industrial centre for collection, storage and disposal (Cires) in the Aube département ) Low-level (LL) Surface repository (Aube repository (CSA)) Near-surface disposal (being studied pursuant to the Act of 28 June 2006) Intermediate level (IL) High level (HL) Not applicable (1) (1) There is no such thing as high level, very short-lived waste. Hundreds Bq/g Millions Bq/g Billions Bq/g Deep geological disposal (planned pursuant to the Act of 28 June 2006) ASN report on the state of nuclear safety and radiation protection in France in 2018  355 14 – RADIOACTIVE WASTE AND CONTAMINATED SITES AND SOILS 14