ASN Report 2018

3 —  Learning from experience 3.1  ̶  Carrying out exercises The main aim of these nuclear and radiological emergency exercises is to test the planned response in the event of a radiological emergency in order: ∙ ∙ to measure the level of preparedness of all the entities involved (safety Authorities, technical experts, licensees); ∙ ∙ to ensure that the plans are kept up to date, that they are well-known to those in charge and to the participants at all levels and that the alert and coordination procedures they contain are effective; ∙ ∙ to train those who would be involved in such a situation; ∙ ∙ to implement the various aspects of the organisation and the procedures set out in the Interministerial Directives: the emergency plans, the contingency plans, the local safeguard plans and the various conventions; ∙ ∙ to contribute to informing the media and develop a general public information approach so that everyone can, through their own individual behaviour, contribute to civil protection; ∙ ∙ to build on emergency situation management knowledge and experience. These exercises, which are scheduled by an annual interministerial review, involve the licensee, the Ministries, the offices of the Prefects and services of the départements , ASN, ASND, IRSN and Météo-France , which can represent up to 300 people when resources are deployed in the field. They aim to test the effectiveness of the provisions made for assessing the situation, the ability to bring the installation or the package to a safe condition, to take appropriate measures to protect the general public and to ensure satisfactory communication with the media and the populations concerned. 3.1.1  –  National nuclear and radiological emergency exercises In the same way as in previous years, and together with the SGDSN, the DGSCGC and the ASND, ASN prepared a programme of national nuclear and radiological emergency exercises for 2018, concerning BNIs and the transport of radioactive substances. This programme, announced to the Prefects in the Interministerial Instruction of 20 December 2017, took account of the lessons learned from the Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident and the emergency exercises performed in 2017. Generally speaking, these exercises enable the highest-level decision-making circles to be tested, along with the ability of the leading players to communicate, sometimes with simulated media pressure on them. Table 2 describes the key characteristics of the national exercises conducted in 2018. In addition to the national exercises, the Prefects are asked to conduct local exercises with the sites in their département , in order to improve preparedness for radiological emergency situations and more specifically to test the time needed to mobilise all the parties concerned. The performance of a national nuclear and radiological emergency exercise, at maximum intervals of five years on the nuclear sites covered by a PPI, and at least one annual exercise concerning the transport of radioactive substances, would seem to be a fair compromise between the training of individuals and the time needed to effect changes to organisations. In 2018, in addition to the general objectives of the exercises listed earlier, additional objectives were introduced into the schedule, taking account of lessons learned and the results of the exercises and experimental training carried out in 2017. Certain exercises were thus extended by a day devoted to training the response crews (fire brigade, police, etc.), with a view to optimising the preparedness of the offices of the Prefects for implementation of population protection measures or post-accident actions specific to the nuclear sector. ASN is also heavily involved in the preparation and performance of emergency exercises that have a nuclear safety component and are organised by other players such as: ∙ ∙ its counterparts for nuclear security (HFDS - Defence and Security High Official reporting to the Minister in charge of Energy) or for Defence-related facilities (ASND); ∙ ∙ international bodies (IAEA, European Commission, NEA); ∙ ∙ the Ministries (Health, Interior, etc.). With regard to Defence-related facilities, an exercise run by the ASND was organised during the course of 2018, in accordance with the Interministerial Instruction on nuclear and radiological emergency exercises. ASN activated its Emergency Centre to support the ASND in accordance with the agreement signed by both Authorities on 5 July 2017. This more particularly stipulates that: ∙ ∙ at the national level, ASN advises the ASND on aspects concerning the impact of releases on the environment and on preparation for post-accident management of the emergency; ∙ ∙ at the local level, a representative of the ASN regional division concerned goes to the office of the Prefect to advise the Prefect pending the arrival of the ASND representative. Deployment of the ASN on-call team In January 2018, ASN set up its 24/7 on-call system. This system aims to reinforce the robustness of ASN’s organisation enabling it to deal with alerts, events and emergencies within its fields of competence. It constitutes the first level of the ASN emergency organisation, which also provides for the general alert and mobilisation of staff to activate the various units in the Emergency Centre and carry out various local missions (support for the Prefect, on-site liaison, etc.). The ASN on-call team comprises 15 members distributed among the head-office departments and the regional divisions, who carry out this mission for seven consecutive days. For the first year of operation of this system, ASN set up a monitoring committee which met twice, in April and October 2018, in order to review the deployment of the system and make recommendations. The system deployed is proving satisfactory and the identified areas for improvement primarily concern staff training, the “reflex” sheets and the operation of the dedicated equipment. ASN report on the state of nuclear safety and radiation protection in France in 2018  167 04 – RADIOLOGICAL EMERGENCY AND POST-ACCIDENT SITUATIONS 04