59 ASN report on the state of nuclear safety and radiation protection in France in 2017 Chapter 01 - Nuclear activities: ionising radiation and health and environmental risks Particular attention is required in order to control and reduce the doses linked to medical imaging, more specifically when alternative techniques can be used for a same given indication, because the multiplication of the most heavily irradiating examinations for the same person could lead to the effective dose value of several tens of millisieverts being reached; at this level of exposure, certain epidemiological surveys have revealed the occurrence of radiation-induced cancers. 3.4 Exposure of non-human species (animal and plant species) The international radiation protection system was created to protect humans against the effects of ionising radiation. Environmental radioactivity is thus assessed with respect to its impact on human beings and, in the absence of any evidence to the contrary, it is today considered that the current standards guarantee the protection of other species. Protection of the environment against the radiological risk and more specifically the protection of non-human species, must however be guaranteed independently of the effects on humans. Pointing out that this objective is already incorporated in the national legislation, ASN will ensure that the impact of ionising radiation on non-human species be effectively included in the regulations and in the authorisations for nuclear activities as soon as evaluation methods are available. On the basis of the IRSN appraisal report, the Advisory Committee for Radiation Protection in Industrial and Research Applications of Ionising Radiation and for the Environment adopted an opinion in September 2015. In 2016, ASN started work with a view to adopting a position on this subject which should be published as an opinion in mid-2017. FOCUS The second plan of action for controlling the doses of ionising radiation delivered to persons in medical imaging Controlling the doses delivered to patients for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes leads to measures to ensure that the principles of justification and optimisation are embraced in the exercise of medical practices that use ionising radiation. A second ASN plan of action to control the doses of ionising radiation delivered to persons in medical imaging will be published in early 2018. It aims at continuing the promotion of a culture of radiation protection in medical professionals with the reinforcement of skills and harmonisation of practices in an updated regulatory framework taking into account the transposition of Directive 2013/59/Euratom of 5th December 2013 laying down basic safety standards relative to protection against the dangers arising from exposure to ionising radiation [see chapter 3]. This new plan of action follows on from the previous one (2011-2017) to expand effect to different areas, including human resources and training, quality and safety of professional practices, and equipment. 4. Outlook As in the preceding years, the results for the doses received by the workers in 2016 remained stable, with the annual dose received remaining below 1 mSv for about 96% of the workers liable to be exposed, and only one case exceeding the annual limit dose of 20 mSv. Monitoring of exposure of the lens of the eye with, for this tissue, compliance with the new limit, constitutes the main objective of radiation protection in the immediate years and more specifically in the area of fluoroscopy-guided interventional medical practices. Controlling the doses of ionising radiation delivered to persons duringmedical examinations remains a priority for ASN. A second plan of action, which extends the previous one (2011-2017), drawn up in collaboration with the stakeholders (institutional and professional) shall be published in the first quarter of 2018. Deployment of the 3rdNational Plan for Radon RiskManagement, which accompanies the updating of the regulations in this area and the publication of the newmap of municipalities considered as priorities with respect to this risk, is intended to intensify the communication efforts directed towards the public. The installation of measuring devices in existing housing shall be encouraged, particularly in the context of implementation of the new provisions concerning the obligation to inform house buyers and tenants. Collection and analysis of the results can then be gradually organised.