ASN Report 2017

44 1. State of knowledge of the hazards and risks associated with ionising radiation 46 1.1 Biological and health effects 1.2 Evaluation of risks linked to ionising radiation 1.3 Scientific uncertainties and vigilance 1.3.1 Radiosensitivity 1.3.2 Effects of low doses 1.3.3 Molecular signature in radiation-induced cancers 2. The different sources of ionising radiation 50 2.1 Natural radiation 2.1.1 Natural terrestrial radiation (excluding radon) 2.1.2 Radon 2.1.3 Cosmic radiation 2.2 Ionising radiation arising from human activities 2.2.1 Basic Nuclear Installations 2.2.2 Transport of radioactive substances 2.2.3 Small-scale nuclear activities 2.2.4 Radioactive waste management 2.2.5 Management of contaminated sites 2.2.6 Activities using radioactive substances of natural origin 3. Monitoring of exposure to ionising radiation 53 3.1 Doses received by workers 3.1.1 Exposure of persons working in nuclear facilities 3.1.2 Worker exposure to TENORM (Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials) 3.1.3 Flight crew exposure to cosmic radiation 3.2 Doses received by the population 3.2.1 Doses received by the population as a result of nuclear activities 3.2.2 Exposure of the population to Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM) 3.3 Doses received by patients 3.4 Exposure of non-human species (animal and plant species) 4. Outlook 59