193 ASN report on the state of nuclear safety and radiation protection in France in 2017 Chapter 07 - International relations 3.4 The International Nuclear Regulators’ Association (INRA) The International Nuclear Regulators’ Association (INRA) comprises the regulatory bodies from Germany, Canada, South Korea, Spain, the United States, France, Japan, the United Kingdom and Sweden. This association is a forum for regular and informal discussions concerning topical matters in these various countries and the positions adopted on international issues. It meets twice a year in the country holding the presidency, with each country acting as president for one year in turn (France in 2015, Spain in 2016, United States in 2017 and South Korea in 2018). 3.5 The United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) The United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) was created in 1955. It compiles all scientific data on radiation sources and the risks this radiation represents for the environment and for health. This activity is supervised by the annual meeting of the national representations of the Member States, comprising experts, including an ASN Commissioner, Margot Tirmarche. 3.6 The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) The ICRP, a non-governmental organisation, was created in 1928 with the aim of assessing the state of knowledge about the effects of radiation, in order to ensure that it does not call current protection rules into question. The ICRP bases its findings on the results of the research work carried out around the world and examines the work of other international organisations, notably that of UNSCEAR. It issues general recommendations on the protection rules to be adopted and on the exposure levels to be complied with. Margot Tirmarche is a member of the “Health effects of radiation” C1 Committee of the ICRP and chairs a working group evaluating cancer risks linked to alpha emitters. 4. International agreements ASN acts as the national point of contact for the two Conventions dealing on the one hand with nuclear safety (the Convention on Nuclear Safety) and on the other with spent fuel and wastes (Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management). ASN is also the Competent Authority for the two Conventions dedicated to the operational management of the possible consequences of accidents (the Convention on the Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident and the Convention on Assistance in the case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency). 4.1 The Convention on Nuclear Safety The Convention on Nuclear Safety is one of the results of international discussions initiated in 1992 in order to contribute to maintaining a high level of nuclear safety worldwide. 2 The objectives of the Convention on Nuclear Safety are to reach and maintain a high level of nuclear safety worldwide; to establish and maintain effective defences in nuclear facilities against potential radiological risks and to prevent accidents which could have radiological consequences and mitigate their consequences should they occur. The areas covered by the Convention have long been part of the French approach to nuclear safety. The Convention makes provision for review meetings by the contracting parties every three years, to develop cooperation and the exchange of experience. Since 1999, six review meetings of the Convention on Nuclear Safety have been held, including one chaired by ASN in 2014. In France, ASN acts as the Competent Authority for the Convention on Nuclear Safety. It coordinates all the preparatory phases prior to the review meetings, in close collaboration with the entities concerned. ASN also devotes considerable 2 . This Convention sets a certain number of nuclear safety objectives and defines measures for achieving them. France signed it on 20th September 1994 and approved it on 13th September 1995. The Convention on Nuclear Safety entered into force on 24th October 1996 and, as at 31st December 2017, there were 80 contracting parties. 40th INRA meeting: Foreground and background, left to right: Stephen Burns (NRC), Fernando Marti Scharfhausen (CSN), Mats Persson (SSM), Pierre-Franck Chevet (ASN), Mina Golshan (ONR), Ramzi Jammal (AIEA), Jeng K. Nam (NSSC) and Masaya Yasui (CNRA), Chicago, 17th-18th May 2017.